The oldest settlement found in the city, was founded drevneiberiyskim tribe sedetanov, it refers to the VII century. BC. e. About 27 BC. e. on the site of the ancient settlement, Salduba was founded Roman colony in 14 BC. e. received the title of Caesar, Augustus (Latin: Kesar Augusta) in honor of the Roman emperor Augustus (63 BC. Oe. '14). Emperor settled here Cantabrian wars veterans 29-19 years. BC. e. last phase of the Roman conquest of Iberian (Iberian) peninsula. In the structure of the historic center of Zaragoza preserved features regular layout of the ancient Roman colony.
Zaragoza had survived the fall of the Roman Empire, alternately invading Vandals, Suevi and Visigoths (V c.), And then the Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. When the Arabs (714-1118 gg.) The city was called Medina Sarakusta. In the northern part of the peninsula at that time it was the largest city of the ones that were under Muslim rule. From 1018 to 1118 Sarakusta was the center of one of the emirates of the Taifa, which collapsed as a result of the Caliphate of Córdoba internal strife. Then in the first half to XI. Aljafería Palace was built one of the main attractions of the city.
Taking advantage of the weakening of the Moors, King Alfonso I of Aragon Champion (1073-1134 gg.) During the Reconquista besieged the city in 1118 after a six-month siege, the Moors were expelled, Zaragoza became the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon. In the status of the capital of the kingdom Zaragoza remained until the end of the XV century.
In 1469 the Catholic kings married Isabella of Castile (1451-1504 gg.) And Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516 gg.). With them was the political unification of Spain, the Reconquista ended, America was discovered.
The very same Zaragoza, especially done well in the production of textiles, has become one of the most economically developed cities of Aragon. In the middle of the XVI century. Zaragoza has been one of the first cities in Spain, where there Mercantile Exchange and the printing press.
In the War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714 gg. Zaragoza joined forces with the Austrian archduke and future Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI (1685-1740 gg.). August 20, 1710 under the walls of Saragossa was a battle between the Spanish army and the combined forces of Austria, Britain, the Netherlands and Portugal, have won.
During the Napoleonic Wars, 1799-1815 gg. Zaragoza twice besieged the French: in 1808 and in 180809 years., When Zaragoza surrendered only after the death of 50,000 of its defenders. For this feat Spaniards call Zaragoza Sempre Heroica heroine ever. Heroic defense of Zaragoza dedicated etching What courage! Disasters of War series of works by the artist Francisco Goya (1746-1828 gg.), born near Zaragoza, who studied painting and worked in this city (his earlier historical paintings so admired one Russian diplomat that the artist was invited to work in Russia, but because of for the scandal with the failed abduction of his girlfriend from the monastery, before the planned trip, so Geyyu anywhere from Zaragoza and was not allowed).
According to local legend, when preached Christianity in Zaragoza St.. James (Santiago), Oct. 12, 40 n. e. Apostle was the Virgin Mary standing on a marble column (Spanish Pilar). Pilar is considered holy patroness of Zaragoza and Spain, and October 12 is celebrated as a national holiday double (so happened that in 1492 the same day Columbus discovered America).
It is believed that the river Erbo was one of the wonders of early Christianity phenomenon of Our Lady of the apostle James. She told me to build on the site of the legendary columns (Pilar) temple. Subsequently erected on the site of the church, but the first structures were not preserved all the invaders were destroyed or fires.
The present Baroque church Basilica de Nuestra Senora del Pilar (Our Lady on the Pillar) was founded in 1681, completed in 1686 during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. the church dropped three bombs, but none of them exploded, the locals are also perceived as a miracle. Two of them are exhibited today in the Basilica, as evidence of a miracle.
In honor of the miracle of the Virgin phenomenon every year on October 12 in Zaragoza, Spain, and throughout the holiday is celebrated Las Fiestas del Pilar. The holiday lasts for nine days, when the streets of Zaragoza, its people (more than half the population of Aragon) like mad Hoth national Aragonese dance, bullfights held, and at night fireworks are launched over the Ebro.
Zaragoza are many other holidays: a procession of drummers in Holy Week, campfires on the Day of Saint John on June 24 (summer solstice), the sun as soon as possible to help disperse the darkness of the night. In addition, each area of the city celebrates its own festival, and the most picturesque holiday Delicias district and the district of San Jose.
But the main Las Fiestas del Pilar. The culmination of the holiday parade of dolls with big heads, whose tradition dates back to the times of the Middle Ages, and the offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary, when the human pillars holding flowers blend together in the Plaza del Pilar before the basilica.
On the economic miracle of Zaragoza particular reason to say no, but the city still confidently cope with the economic crisis. Since the second half of the XX century. by strong economic growth. Zaragoza have built several factories. Agriculture in the region has long been in decline, so that the manufacturer of railway locomotives CAF, a manufacturer of household appliances Balay, plant General Motors Opel and other new factories and plants have become backbone of the economy of the region. Zaragoza is a Spanish Air Force base, which until 1994 also situated U.S. Air Force. University of Zaragoza, founded in 1542, is one of the oldest universities in Spain and is one of the best public universities in Europe.
Location: Southern Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, north-east Spain.
The administrative center of the Autonomous Region (community) and the province of Aragon Zaragoza.
Date of foundation: '27 BC. e. (Caesar of the Roman-August).
Administrative divisions: 15 districts.
Area: 973.78 km2.
Population density: 692.9 inhabitants / km2.
The average height above sea level: 200 m
Mediterranean, with the features of the continental dry.
In the winter fog and dry wind serso the north-west.
Average annual precipitation: 320 mm.
GRP (Aragon) € 33,252 million
Scope of services: trade, tourism, transport, organization of international fairs.
■ The ruins of the ancient Roman era (walls, a forum, a theater, baths and a river port, IIV cc.)
■ Religious buildings: Basilica of Nuestra Señora del Pilar (founded in the XVII century.), The church of San Pablo (first half of the XIV century.), The monastery of Santo Sepulkro (Sepulcher, XIV c.), The church of San Miguel de Los Navarro (XIV c.), the church of San Gil Abad (XIV c.), the Cathedral of San Salvador, or La Seo (XII-XVI centuries.), the Church of Santa Maria Magdalena (XVI c.), Temple Santa Engracia (XVI c.), the Church of Santa Engracia (XVI c.), the Church of San Juan (XVII c.)
■ Palaces: Aljaferia (XI c.), The Palacio de los Condes de Argyle (XVI c.), The Palacio de los Condes de Sástago (XVI century). Palacio Episkopal (XVI century). ;
■ Building Torreon de la Court (XV c.)
■ University of Zaragoza (founded in the first half of the XVI century).
■ MuseumsMuseum of Jose Aznar Ka-mon, the Provincial Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Zaragoza, Pablo Gargallo Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of carpets (a collection of tapestries);
■ Stone Bridge (XV c.)
■ Exchange (La Lonja, the middle of the XVI century.)
■ Yard Princess Renaissance (mid XVI century).
■ Town Hall (Ayuntamiento, the middle of XX century).
■ Expo Zaragoza (Water Tower, Pavilion Bridge, freshwater aquarium) (to 2008).
■ At the time of Moorish rule Zaragoza surrounded by walls constructed of white stone, and it was called the white stone or white city (Medina al-Baidy Sarakusta).
■ Zaragoza over two hundred palaces, built mostly in the XVI century., But the main palace of Zaragoza is Aljafería Moorish palace in the XI., Whose throne room in the style of Mudejar. After the expulsion of the Moors Aljaferia palace became the residence of the Catholic Kings of Spain.
■ In 1485 the palace was located Aljaferia the Inquisition, as well as a prison for heretics. In 1706, the palace was used as a barracks. Currently part of the premises Aphaferii belongs to the Parliament (Cortes) of Aragon. One of the towers of the palace is called Troubadour Tower. It was built in the IX., And is known for being an Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901 gg.) Placed her characters in his opera Il Trovatore.
■ In 1529 in Zaragoza, a treaty was signed between Spain and Portugal on the division of spheres of influence in the Eastern Hemisphere. This document complements the famous pact of Tordesillas in 1494, which was determined by a similar line to the west.
In Seville, a monument in honor of her exploits. In 1808, she came to the artillery battery and brought a basket of apples gunners. During the attack, the French Augustine shot out of a cannon at enemies at close range, setting an example of courage Spaniards and became a symbol of resistance. Subsequently commanded the guerrilla group, and being produced by a captain, was the only female officer.
■ Exchange (La Lonja) Renaissance building, built in the XVI., Currently Showroom Ayuntamiento. From the front it seems that the high-rise building, but this is an illusion: the entire interior is a huge room with several rows of columns, which pass into the lancet arches.
■ In the Plaza del Pilar collected architectural masterpieces of different eras: the Spanish example of late Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador (XII-XVI centuries.) On the site of a former mosque, the building of Torreon de la Court (XV c.), Erected on site of the former residence of the Moorish rulers, and even the ruins of the ancient walls surrounding the city.
■ Flooding seriously threatened for the World Expo 2008 in Zaragoza. Ironically, the theme of the exhibition was the Water and Sustainable Development. The exhibition halls are located in the bend of the river Ebro. In 2008 in Europe for the flood occurred in Germany, Italy, Belgium, England. Heavy rains could cause a sharp rise in the water level in the Ebro, but fortunately it did not happen.