Sayan mountainous country in Siberia. Written documents and maps of the XVII century. point to the fact that the original was known for only one object, named for a small Sayan Sayan Ridge Stone (currently Sayan Ridge). Later the name Sayan spread throughout the mountainous region of Altai to Baikal and is now divided into the Western Sayan and Eastern Sayan Mountains, which are located in the surrounding basins: Minusinskaya, Tuva, and Todzhinskoy Tunkinskaya.
West Sayan is a system extending to the north-east ranges separated by river valleys. East Sayan is located at a right angle to the West, from the left bank of the Yenisei River in the south-east almost to the southern tip of Lake Baikal.
Arched-blocky Sayan included in the largest and most typical of the inland zone (eniplat-shaped) orogeny Central Asia, including the Hindu Kush mountain structures, Tien Shan, Pamir, Kunlun, Nan Shan, Qinling, Altai, Sayan, Baikal, Trans-Baikal, becoming the ridge, which formed on mature continental crust, after a long period of relative tectonic quiescence. In the case of Sayan we can talk about one of the oldest geological materials in Russia, on the Late Proterozoic rocks of the Early Paleozoic, and magmatic granitoids (manifestations alkaline basalt volcanism in the Eastern Sayan Mountains). Nor height, nor the size of the secondary mountains Orogen are not inferior to the young, the primary orogenic Alps and others.
At many sites, the top of the Sayan Mountains covered by glaciers. In the highest massifs of the Eastern Sayan known 190 glaciers with a total area of about 30 km2
. Much of the peaks occupied snowfields: fixed accumulations of snow in the valleys and hollows, protected from the wind and sun. Ranges covered with snow fields, create a system BELOGORIYA, the most famous Ottoman and Kan. Many glaciers persist throughout the summer, for which dubbed pereletkami. Neta year-round snow on the tops of the Sayan Mountains were nicknamed proteins.
The highest peak of the Western Sayan Kyzyl-Taiga, sacred to Tuva: her foot locals bury their shamans. Name of a mountain in Tuvan red mountain covered with forest. Munch-Sardyk the highest point of the Eastern Sayan, and its name in the Buryat means eternal char. Loach in Siberia has long been called the treeless mountains. Munch-Sardis is located on the border of Russia (Buryatia) and Mongolia. The first ascent to the summit made in 1858 by Gustav Radtse (1831-1903 gg.) Russian geographer and naturalist, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Sayan river rapids, which have large reserves of hydropower, flow into the wetland valleys formed by glaciers, and belong to the basin of the Yenisei. Glacial lakes are rich in fish, mainly Siberian grayling.
The main obstacle for the development of agriculture and the development of the territory of the Sayan valley thickness of permafrost. On the slopes of the Sayan mountain taiga prevails passing in subalpine and alpine meadows, and even higher in the mountain tundra.
Two-meter ounce cat still lives in Sayan gorges, although its population is threatened with extinction.
More than half of the area occupied by Sayan mountain taiga landscapes with dark coniferous spruce-pine-fir or larch-light pine forests. Tops and slopes of the mountains are rocky tundra with Kurumi stone streams originating on the tops of the mountains.
In Sayan live brown bear, deer, musk deer, wolverine, sable, lynx, and is listed as endangered snow leopard, also known as the snow leopard. In the mountain tundra reindeer graze.
For Conservation of Nature Sayan established two wildlife reserve Sayano-Shushenskaya in the Western Sayan and Poles in the East. Sayano-Shushenskaya Reserve is located in the center of the Western Sayan on both sides of the Main Sayan Mountains. The purpose of its creation was to protect a precious sable fur.
The reserve was founded by Poles at the initiative of the residents of Krasnoyarsk to save the pillars of rocks of volcanic origin.
People have mastered the Sayan Intermountain about 35-40 thousand years ago, from the days were stone tools found at prehistoric campsites, for example, in the area of Afontova mountains. Later, it was first domesticated reindeer. The ancestors of the indigenous inhabitants of Sayan received iron and copper traded from across Asia.
Excavations in the Western Sayan and finds Uyukskaya monuments of culture in the Valley of the Kings near the river Uyuk mass graves of men and horses in the mounds Arjaan-1 (dates back to the IX-VIII. Before. District. E.) And Arjaan-2 (intact burial VI-V centuries . BC. Oe. Scythian leader with his wife, where it was found about 20 kg of gold objects and jewelry in the Scythian-Siberian animal style), turned an idea of the development of the arts and crafts of the ancient Scythians. A collection of the Hermitage workshops restored in gold objects (more than a thousand, and they will be on temporary exhibitions in the best museums of the world) is stored in a museum in the capital of the Republic of Tuva Kyzyl.
The existence of Sayan learned Russian in 1615 from the documents of the expedition royal ambassadors in Tuva. Fifty years later, on the banks of the rivers Sayan only way to transport those wild places of the construction of forts (fortified settlements). However, these lands were settled slowly due to the harsh climate.
Subsequently, there were two waves of mass migration of Russian in these places: the first after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the second during the Stolypin agrarian reforms, which began in 1906, Land suitable for arable farming usual classes Russian peasants were quickly mastered. Because they often had conflicts with the indigenous population.
In Soviet times, the Sayan basins were built several highways for operation of iron ore and gold mines, but still Sayan remain sparsely populated territory. The most remote and uninhabited area of Sayan Tofalariya. Here live Tofalars or Tofs, one of the smallest nations in Russia: their numbers are barely more than 700 people.
Sayan population lives mainly along rivers and roads, including those engaged in the service of tourists and mountaineers.
In Abakan-Minusinskaya basin, numerous archaeological sites. In East Sayan large number of waterfalls. In the West Sayan Ergaki Nature Park, among the rocks treated glacier.
It is often possible to see about building made of stones and branches where the locals ask the gods for good fortune and leave them tribute. To have survived the epic tale of the hero Geser in different versions of the peoples of Sayan. Geser cleared land from monsters and established peace. His soldiers were petrified and turned into Sayan mountains, and Geser lives on top of the highest mountain Sayan Munch-Sardyk being his throne.
Location: South Siberia west of Lake Baikal.
Administrative affiliation: Western Sayan mountains south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the north of the Republic of Tyva, East Sayan Mountains south of Krasnoyarsk Krai and Irkutsk region, west of the Republic of Buryatia, north-east of the Republic of Tyva.
The largest rivers of the Western Sayan: Khemchik, Big Ury, Naked, Pashkina, Halavan, Kantegir, Joy, Abakan, Us, Kazyrsug, Birch, Shush, Oya, Tyva with Amyl and Kazyru.
The largest rivers of the Eastern Sayan: Big Yenisey, Kizir, Kazyr, Uda, Ham, Cheese, Syda, Sisim, Mans, Caen, Agul, Tuba, Biryusa, Uda, eye, Irkut.
The largest lakes Todzha, Mana-Hol-Hol Kadish, Kara-Khol, Beduy (taimen) Pazyrym, Argadanskie and Buybinskie, Black, Oi, Tulber-Hol.
The major airport:
International Airport Sheremetyevo (Krasnoyarsk).
Area: about 250 000 km2.
The length: West Sayan Mountains 650 km East Sayan about 1000 km.
Population density: less than 1 person / km2.
The highest peaks:
West Sayan mountain Kyzyl-Taiga (3122 m), Eastern Sayan mountain Munch-Sardyk (3491 m).
Sharply continental. Altitudinal zonation.
Long and cold winter, short and cool summers.
The average temperature in January:25C in the mountains,-30C in the intermountain basins.
The average temperature in July: + 12C in the mountains, +20 C in the intermountain basins.
Average annual precipitation: 300-350 mm in the intermountain basins, 400-500 mm in the foothills and on the southern slopes of the mountains, 1000-1200 mm on the northern slopes of the mountains.
Relative humidity: 70%.
On the basis of mineral and hydroelectric resources created Sayan territorial-production complex. Mining of iron ores is conducted in Abakan, Irbinskom deposits and deposits Krasnokamensk group.
Minerals: West Sayan iron, copper, molybdenum, tungsten ore, gold, asbestos, Eastern Sayan iron, titanium, aluminum, lead and zinc ore, gold, and rare earth metals, mica, phosphate, magnesite, graphite.
Hydropower: Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.
■ Natural: Turanian hot springs spa resort Nilo Desert Island (East Sayan), Stone Town (Western Sayan), Mount Kyzyl-Taiga (West Sayan), mountain glaciers and Munch-Sardyk (East Sayan), Minusinskaya hollow, Manske and Kan Belogoriya, rocky ridge Sleeping Sayan (West Sayan), Big Yenisey river, a mountain range Tunkinskie Goltzes (East Sayan), waterfalls Hamsarinsky, Dototsky, Udi, Bii-Khem, canyons and large Kishti Dotota, cirque Bear Lake, Lower Suruntsinskoe, Watch-Hyp, Shuthulay-Nur and Kara-Balik, volcanoes Peretolchina and Kropotkin, rock Hanging Rock (West Sayan), caves Badzheyskaya, Cuban and Oreshskaya.
■ Reserves and natural parks: Natural park Ergaki (West Sayan), Sayano-reserve (West Sayan), reserve Pillars (Krasnoyarsk).
■ Archaeological: Paleolithic in Afontova Mountains (Krasnoyarsk), Scythian burial mounds near the village Arzhaan (West Sayan).
■ Ethnographic: Tofalariya (Central Sayan) area of residence of the small people Tofalars or Tof.
■ IndustrialSayano-Shushenskaya HPP.
■ Located at the foot of the mountains Minusinskaya Basin was nicknamed the Siberian Italy for its unique warm and even hot climate of these places, and dry summers, which allows you to grow fruit here and even melons.
■ Volcanoes Kropotkin and young Peretolchina large extinct volcanoes in the paddy Hee-goal in the Republic of Buryatia. Crater diameter of about 200 meters altitude above the lava field about 120 meters
■ In Sayan, on the Yenisei River, built by the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is the largest in Russia, the sixth of the existing hydroelectric power plants in the world. Construction of power plant was begun in 1963 and completed in 1985
■ In the XIX century. in Krasnoyarsk Pillars social movement was born, named stolbizm: with all the Russian people came here to conquer the pinnacles and get acquainted. Difficult to climb rocks contributed to the creation of outstanding school rock climbers and mountaineers the world level. Currently Pillars annually visited by more than 200 thousand people.
■ Rock Hanging Rock is one of the main attractions of the reserve Ergaki. This is a huge stone that it is not clear how hovered on the edge of the cliff into the lake rainbow. In fact, the stone is held firmly and all attempts to push it manually force of 30-40 people have failed.
■ Near Irkutsk has a Nil deserts (in honor wished to found a monastery Archbishop of Irkutsk and Irkutsk Nerchinskogo Nile (Nikolai Fedorovich Isakovic (1799-1874 gg.), While at Seliger deserts in honor of St.. Nile Stolbensky.) Now this resort at the hot springs whose medicinal properties have been investigated in 1840 by order of the governor, who gave the land as a gift to the Archbishop of the Nile in 1845, Bishop Neil organized here holding worship services in the Buryat language. Archbishop interested in Buddhism, ethnography, geology, and painting. His Eminence repeatedly went on Shumak. has a fine collection of minerals, now kept in the mineralogical museum of St. Petersburg University. came to the sources in exile in Siberia, the Decembrists.