Zaragoza – Spain City

ZaragozaThe capital city of Zaragoza Aragon and the fifth largest city in Spain (after Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Seville). Most of the city and the historical center are on the right bank of the Ebro River the deepest Spain and two of its tributaries, and UE'RV Gallego. In the Middle Ages, floods destroyed the bridges and the shore were a scourge of the city. In the XVIII century. Ebro banks in the city have been strengthened and the risk of flooding has decreased.
The oldest settlement found in the city, was founded drevneiberiyskim tribe sedetanov, it refers to the VII century. BC. e. About 27 BC. e. on the site of the ancient settlement, Salduba was founded Roman colony in 14 BC. e. received the title of Caesar, Augustus (Latin: Kesar Augusta) in honor of the Roman emperor Augustus (63 BC. Oe. '14). Emperor settled here Cantabrian wars veterans 29-19 years. BC. e. last phase of the Roman conquest of Iberian (Iberian) peninsula. In the structure of the historic center of Zaragoza preserved features regular layout of the ancient Roman colony.
Zaragoza had survived the fall of the Roman Empire, alternately invading Vandals, Suevi and Visigoths (V c.), And then the Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. When the Arabs (714-1118 gg.) The city was called Medina Sarakusta. In the northern part of the peninsula at that time it was the largest city of the ones that were under Muslim rule. From 1018 to 1118 Sarakusta was the center of one of the emirates of the Taifa, which collapsed as a result of the Caliphate of Córdoba internal strife. Then in the first half to XI. Aljafería Palace was built one of the main attractions of the city.
Taking advantage of the weakening of the Moors, King Alfonso I of Aragon Champion (1073-1134 gg.) During the Reconquista besieged the city in 1118 after a six-month siege, the Moors were expelled, Zaragoza became the capital of the Kingdom of Aragon. In the status of the capital of the kingdom Zaragoza remained until the end of the XV century.
In 1469 the Catholic kings married Isabella of Castile (1451-1504 gg.) And Ferdinand II of Aragon (1452-1516 gg.). With them was the political unification of Spain, the Reconquista ended, America was discovered.
The very same Zaragoza, especially done well in the production of textiles, has become one of the most economically developed cities of Aragon. In the middle of the XVI century. Zaragoza has been one of the first cities in Spain, where there Mercantile Exchange and the printing press.
In the War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714 gg. Zaragoza joined forces with the Austrian archduke and future Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI (1685-1740 gg.). August 20, 1710 under the walls of Saragossa was a battle between the Spanish army and the combined forces of Austria, Britain, the Netherlands and Portugal, have won.Map Zaragoza
During the Napoleonic Wars, 1799-1815 gg. Zaragoza twice besieged the French: in 1808 and in 180809 years., When Zaragoza surrendered only after the death of 50,000 of its defenders. For this feat Spaniards call Zaragoza Sempre Heroica heroine ever. Heroic defense of Zaragoza dedicated etching What courage! Disasters of War series of works by the artist Francisco Goya (1746-1828 gg.), born near Zaragoza, who studied painting and worked in this city (his earlier historical paintings so admired one Russian diplomat that the artist was invited to work in Russia, but because of for the scandal with the failed abduction of his girlfriend from the monastery, before the planned trip, so Geyyu anywhere from Zaragoza and was not allowed).
According to local legend, when preached Christianity in Zaragoza St.. James (Santiago), Oct. 12, 40 n. e. Apostle was the Virgin Mary standing on a marble column (Spanish Pilar). Pilar is considered holy patroness of Zaragoza and Spain, and October 12 is celebrated as a national holiday double (so happened that in 1492 the same day Columbus discovered America).
It is believed that the river Erbo was one of the wonders of early Christianity phenomenon of Our Lady of the apostle James. She told me to build on the site of the legendary columns (Pilar) temple. Subsequently erected on the site of the church, but the first structures were not preserved all the invaders were destroyed or fires.
The present Baroque church Basilica de Nuestra Senora del Pilar (Our Lady on the Pillar) was founded in 1681, completed in 1686 during the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939. the church dropped three bombs, but none of them exploded, the locals are also perceived as a miracle. Two of them are exhibited today in the Basilica, as evidence of a miracle.
In honor of the miracle of the Virgin phenomenon every year on October 12 in Zaragoza, Spain, and throughout the holiday is celebrated Las Fiestas del Pilar. The holiday lasts for nine days, when the streets of Zaragoza, its people (more than half the population of Aragon) like mad Hoth national Aragonese dance, bullfights held, and at night fireworks are launched over the Ebro.
Zaragoza are many other holidays: a procession of drummers in Holy Week, campfires on the Day of Saint John on June 24 (summer solstice), the sun as soon as possible to help disperse the darkness of the night. In addition, each area of the city celebrates its own festival, and the most picturesque holiday Delicias district and the district of San Jose.
But the main Las Fiestas del Pilar. The culmination of the holiday parade of dolls with big heads, whose tradition dates back to the times of the Middle Ages, and the offering of flowers to the Virgin Mary, when the human pillars holding flowers blend together in the Plaza del Pilar before the basilica.
On the economic miracle of Zaragoza particular reason to say no, but the city still confidently cope with the economic crisis. Since the second half of the XX century. by strong economic growth. Zaragoza have built several factories. Agriculture in the region has long been in decline, so that the manufacturer of railway locomotives CAF, a manufacturer of household appliances Balay, plant General Motors Opel and other new factories and plants have become backbone of the economy of the region. Zaragoza is a Spanish Air Force base, which until 1994 also situated U.S. Air Force. University of Zaragoza, founded in 1542, is one of the oldest universities in Spain and is one of the best public universities in Europe.
Travel to Spain will give you a lot of unforgettable experiences.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: Southern Europe, the Iberian Peninsula, north-east Spain.
The administrative center of the Autonomous Region (community) and the province of Aragon Zaragoza.
Date of foundation:
'27 BC. e. (Caesar of the Roman-August).
Administrative divisions: 15 districts.

Language: Spanish.
Ethnic composition: Spaniards.
Religion: Catholicism.
Currency: euro.
The largest river is: And tributaries of the Ebro UE'RV and Gallego.
The major airport: international airport of Zaragoza.

FIGURES

Area: 973.78 km2.

Population: 674,725 people. (2011).
Population density: 692.9 inhabitants / km2.
The average height above sea level: 200 m

CLIMATE

Mediterranean, with the features of the continental dry.
In the winter fog and dry wind serso the north-west.

The average temperature in January: +6C.
The average temperature in July: +25C.
Average annual precipitation: 320 mm.
Relative humidity: 80%.

ECONOMY

GRP (Aragon) € 33,252 million

GDP per capita: € 25 343 (2010 g.)
Industry: metalworking and engineering (especially transport and agricultural), leather and footwear, food-processing, chemical, woodworking, textile.
Agriculture: crop (irrigated agricultural region of Aragon Huerta), livestock.
Winemaking.
Scope of services:
trade, tourism, transport, organization of international fairs.

ATTRACTIONS

■ The ruins of the ancient Roman era (walls, a forum, a theater, baths and a river port, IIV cc.)
Religious buildings: Basilica of Nuestra Señora del Pilar (founded in the XVII century.), The church of San Pablo (first half of the XIV century.), The monastery of Santo Sepulkro (Sepulcher, XIV c.), The church of San Miguel de Los Navarro (XIV c.), the church of San Gil Abad (XIV c.), the Cathedral of San Salvador, or La Seo (XII-XVI centuries.), the Church of Santa Maria Magdalena (XVI c.), Temple Santa Engracia (XVI c.), the Church of Santa Engracia (XVI c.), the Church of San Juan (XVII c.)
Palaces: Aljaferia (XI c.), The Palacio de los Condes de Argyle (XVI c.), The Palacio de los Condes de Sástago (XVI century). Palacio Episkopal (XVI century). ;
■ Building Torreon de la Court (XV c.)
■ University of Zaragoza (founded in the first half of the XVI century).
MuseumsMuseum of Jose Aznar Ka-mon, the Provincial Museum of Fine Arts, the Museum of Zaragoza, Pablo Gargallo Museum, the Archaeological Museum, the Museum of carpets (a collection of tapestries);
■ Stone Bridge (XV c.)
■ Exchange (La Lonja, the middle of the XVI century.)
■ Yard Princess Renaissance (mid XVI century).
■ Town Hall (Ayuntamiento, the middle of XX century).
■ Expo Zaragoza (Water Tower, Pavilion Bridge, freshwater aquarium) (to 2008).

Curiosities

■ At the time of Moorish rule Zaragoza surrounded by walls constructed of white stone, and it was called the white stone or white city (Medina al-Baidy Sarakusta).
■ Zaragoza over two hundred palaces, built mostly in the XVI century., But the main palace of Zaragoza is Aljafería Moorish palace in the XI., Whose throne room in the style of Mudejar. After the expulsion of the Moors Aljaferia palace became the residence of the Catholic Kings of Spain.
■ In 1485 the palace was located Aljaferia the Inquisition, as well as a prison for heretics. In 1706, the palace was used as a barracks. Currently part of the premises Aphaferii belongs to the Parliament (Cortes) of Aragon. One of the towers of the palace is called Troubadour Tower. It was built in the IX., And is known for being an Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901 gg.) Placed her characters in his opera Il Trovatore.
■ In 1529 in Zaragoza, a treaty was signed between Spain and Portugal on the division of spheres of influence in the Eastern Hemisphere. This document complements the famous pact of Tordesillas in 1494, which was determined by a similar line to the west.

■ The Siege of Zaragoza of 1808-1809. one of the brightest pages in the history of the Spaniards with the army of Napoleon Bonaparte. Besieged fiercely resisted. Even destroying the outer defensive wall, the French were forced to fight for every house, blowing up one after the other. For his devotion to Spain and inflexible nature of the inhabitants of Zaragoza won a huge number of honorary titles to list did not have enough space on the city coat of arms. It fit only the first word titles: noble, very true, very heroic, very beneficent, the Ever-heroic, immortal.
■ The heroine of etchings by Goya What courage! Augustine Raymond Domenech Maria Zaragoza, Aragon, or Augustine (1786-1857 g), known as the Spanish Joan of Arc, a real historical person.
In Seville, a monument in honor of her exploits. In 1808, she came to the artillery battery and brought a basket of apples gunners. During the attack, the French Augustine shot out of a cannon at enemies at close range, setting an example of courage Spaniards and became a symbol of resistance. Subsequently commanded the guerrilla group, and being produced by a captain, was the only female officer.
■ Exchange (La Lonja) Renaissance building, built in the XVI., Currently Showroom Ayuntamiento. From the front it seems that the high-rise building, but this is an illusion: the entire interior is a huge room with several rows of columns, which pass into the lancet arches.
■ In the Plaza del Pilar collected architectural masterpieces of different eras: the Spanish example of late Gothic Cathedral of San Salvador (XII-XVI centuries.) On the site of a former mosque, the building of Torreon de la Court (XV c.), Erected on site of the former residence of the Moorish rulers, and even the ruins of the ancient walls surrounding the city.
■ Flooding seriously threatened for the World Expo 2008 in Zaragoza. Ironically, the theme of the exhibition was the Water and Sustainable Development. The exhibition halls are located in the bend of the river Ebro. In 2008 in Europe for the flood occurred in Germany, Italy, Belgium, England. Heavy rains could cause a sharp rise in the water level in the Ebro, but fortunately it did not happen.

River Tagus – Tejo

The river Tagus (Tejo)The river Tagus (Tejo), the largest river in the Iberian Peninsula are shared by two countries of Spain and Portugal, with related languages, have their own characteristics in phonetics. Therefore, the title has a double: the Spanish and Portuguese Tagus Tagus. Etymology of the name is not fully restored. In sound and contemporary writing the name of the river coincides with the Spanish word tacho gash, which is consistent with the peculiarities of the narrow channel of the rapids in the mountains, in the upper reaches. But as far back as Roman times, the river was known as the Tagus, there is speculation that the name may be associated with the Latin name of yew berries (Latin taksus).
The most densely populated river closer to the mouth, especially in the area of the Portuguese capital of Lisbon, while the upstream areas are virtually uninhabited.
The tribes of the first hunters and gatherers left here at the memory of his so-called primitive culture dish pile Mesolithic (about 10,000 to 5,000 years ago) mugemy: bones are used in food animals, shells and forms of primitive tools made of bone, ie, all that was simple enough person household at the time. Their concentration is particularly high in the valley of the River Tagus in Portugal, where they were discovered in 1863, archaeologist Francesco Antonio Pereira da Costa (1809-1889 gg.).
More than 2/3 of the length of this river flowing from east to west, cross the territory of Spain's autonomous communities of several land: Aragon, Castile-La Mancha, Madrid, Extremadura, in the six provinces of Teruel, Cuenca, Guadalajara, Madrid, Toledo and Cáceres .
In its waters reflected the ruins of buildings of the Roman era (aqueducts, etc.), on its banks, towering castles and stately Spanish Gothic cathedrals. Of the major cities on the banks of the river are Spanish and Portuguese Toledo Lisbon. Spaniards consider it one of the natural character of the country.
Up to the middle reaches of the Euphrates valley is a pretty narrow space, often surrounded by hills raznovysotnyh Iberian mountains of one of the major mountain ranges of Spain. Taking its source at an altitude of 1500 m in the mountain ridge Albarracin, Tahoe is slowly gaining ground, but for a long time winds among its folded-block arrays Mesozoic era as a prisoner encased in a stone fortress. Elevation changes make the track here is very rapids. The Spaniards offset this disadvantage by staging reservoir. Most of the waterway Tahoe lies on the surface of the plateau Novokastilskogo southern Iberian Meseta (the main plateau Iberian Peninsula). And the mouth is located in the hilly Portuguese lowlands.
After a small (about 47 km) of the total area, which forms the border between the two states, the river continues its journey to the ocean is through the lands of the Portuguese, who gets the most extensive and powerful part of the channel. In this country, the sub-region crosses the Tagus Alto Apentezhu, the historical province of Ribatejo and wine region Eshtremadura.
Meeting of the river to the ocean is in the Lisbon area in the Bay of Mar da Paglia. Straw sea (as translated from the Portuguese name sounds Bay) lissabontsy named the first bay itself, perhaps, without any poetizatsii: Tagus significantly pollute fragments of plants that fall into the water from the surrounding farmland.River Tahoe (Tagus) map
Tagus River is navigable: up her current can rise at least until the city Abrantes, and large marine vessels reach Santarem (both cities in Portugal). Thanks to these river ports, and especially being in her mouth an ancient sea port of Lisbon, the river since the late Middle Ages played an important role in the establishment of trade relations between the Mediterranean and Northern Europe. And in the Renaissance at its ports preparing many of the famous Portuguese explorers expedition to Africa, Asia and, of course, America. In addition, more of the Romans in the area went to a well-developed infrastructure in the form of river bridges and aqueducts. In the middle of the XII century. partially passed on the river is the most important for the region boundary: north of Tahoe began land reclaimed from Christians, devotees of the Reconquista (VIII XV cc.) from the Moors, while the south is still dominated by the Arabs. In the XVII century. on the banks of the Tagus in Aranjuez (Spain), made up of the palace and park complex, which may be called the Spanish Versailles. Lush palace with the surrounding park was in 2001, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. At about the same time with the Tahoe is perceived as an important symbol of Spanish culture that its images are increasingly included in the composition of Spanish paintings and literary works (the artist El Greco, 1541-1614 gg.; Poet Garcilaso case Vega, 1501 or 1503-1536 gg.) .
While passing through the territory of two major European states, the river becomes important to their economy. Its highlands are rich in pine forests that was the key to successful development of the forest industry in the region. The waters are still plenty of fish (although it was much less than before, because of contamination) are usual royal carp, trout and many other species. On the banks of the river there are a variety of wildlife species, of which there are four endangered species: Iberian lynx, imperial eagle, black vulture and black stork. Affluent enables to arrange for irrigation of surrounding river bed semi-arid lands. It is also a major energy resource in the region, which have begun to actively use the 1960 (already around 1980, was built more than 60 dams, the largest number of them in the upper reaches of the province of Guadalajara, and in the medium-low, in the province of Caceres). Such extensive use of the river has led to its contamination by sewage, industrial waste, toxic waste. A groundwater in her district by 80% contaminated with nitrates and phosphates result of intensive agricultural and livestock activities.
In the upper reaches of the river is a wonderful natural park Apto Tahoe is one of the largest networks of canyons and gorges of Castile-La Mancha. Downstream of the already mentioned Royal Palace of Aranjuez. Behind him Toledo, historical part of which was well preserved and of the still resembles the one medieval city that captured in their paintings of El Greco. Among its many monuments stand out especially old Cathedral (XIII-XV centuries.), The Alcázar and the old bridge over the Tagus. Closer to the border with Portugal remained the legendary Bridge of Alcantara (II c.), Built more by the Roman Emperor Trajan (53-117 years).. In Portugal Tagus shows no less interesting sights Almourol Castle (from the XII century.) On a small island in the middle of the river, bird's nest, which is located in the winter to 80,000 birds, numerous seaside villas. And the mouth of the river is decorated with the Lisbon castle overlooking the harbor of Torre de Belém (from the XVI century). Iconic symbol of the Age of Discovery.

GENERAL INFORMATION

River on the Iberian Peninsula.

Country: Spain (716 km), Portugal (275 km), 47 km common border.
Source: between the peaks of the San Juan (1830 m) and San Felipe (1839 m), the ridge Albarracin (Iberian mountain).
The estuary: Lisbon (Portugal).
Pool: Atlantic.
The largest tributaries Jarama, Guadarrama, Alagon (Spain); Zêzere, Sorrayya (Portugal). Catering mostly rainy.
Abounding: from November to March. Summer low water (aqueous phase mode with the water level too low).
Major Ports: Lisbon, Abrantes, Santarem (Portugal).
Largest cities: Aranjuez, Toledo, Talavera da la Reina (Spain); Abrantes, Santarém, Lisbon (Portugal).
Languages: Spanish, Portuguese.
Ethnic composition: Spanish and Portuguese.
Religions: dominated by Catholicism.
Currency: euro.
Largest airport: Portela International Airport (Lisbon, Portugal).

FIGURES

The length: about 1038 km (the longest on the Iberian Peninsula).

The basin area: 80,600 km2.
Length of the estuary: about 45 km (width up to 14 km).
On the river more than 60 reservoirs with HPS (Alcantara is one of the largest in Europe, so-called. Castile Sea).
Average water consumption: Trillo (Spain): 18.76 m3/ S, Aranjuez (Spain): 33.32 m3/ S, Toledo (Spain): 43.30 m3/ S, Lisbon (Portugal): 444 m3/ Sec.
The height of the source: 1,593 m (on the ridge Albarracin).
69.2% of the basin is covered by Spain, 30.8% for Portugal.
Up to one third of land around the basin occupied by grain farms and olive groves.

ECONOMY

Industry: Hydropower. Reservoir system and supply of drinking water. The cooling system several Spanish plants. Port industry.
Agriculture: irrigation system (crop, livestock, wine).
Fishing.
Scope of services:
transport (shipping and river transport), tourism (including the resort areas).

CLIMATE

Continental.

The average temperature in January: +6C.
The average temperature in July: +30C
Average annual precipitation: 800 mm (near Toledo) to 600 mm (near Lisbon).

ATTRACTIONS

National parks: Alto Tajo (province of Guadalajara, Spain), Monfragüe (province of Caceres, Spain), the Tagus estuary (District Lisbon, Portugal).
Province of Guadalajara, village of Zorita de los Canes: the ruins of the ancient city of Visigothic Rekopolis (with cep.VI century.).
Province of Toledo, Toledo city: the historical center, the ruins of a Roman amphitheater and aqueduct, the cathedral of St. Mary's (XIIIXV cc.), The Alcazar of Toledo (1486-1570 gg.), the Castle of San Servando (XIV c.), the Franciscan monastery of San Juan de Los Reyes (1477-1504 gg.), a Cistercian monastery of Santo Domingo el Antiguo (founded in 1085), the monastery of Saint Ursula (XIV c.), the Church of San Ildefonso (XVIII c.).
District of Santarém: Almourol Castle (from the XII century.).
City of Lisbon: Castle of St. George (IX-XIV c.), The Torre de Belém (cXVI c.) UNESCO World Heritage Site under the name of the Jeronimos Monastery and Belem Tower in Lisbon (since 1983), otherwise called the Monastery of Jeronimos in his the west wing now houses the National Archaeological Museum, Belém Palace is now the official residence of the President of the country (from the XVI century.), Lisbon Cathedral (XII century., rebuilt in the XVIII century.), a Baroque palace of Mafra (1717-1730 gg.) – the largest in Portugal, Sao Bento Palace (XVII c.) is now the parliament building, the Palace of Ajuda (with the II floor. XVIII century.).
City Queluz: Queluz palace in the Rococo style (1742-1767 gg.).

Curiosities

■ Meticulous Portuguese calculated that a wide mouth of the Tagus in Lisbon region (up to 14 km) would all warships of the modern world to contain in a single bay.
■ One of the longest bridges in Europe is Vasco da Gama Bridge over the Tagus: its length is 17.2 km (11.5 km including the viaduct, and 4.8 km of access roads). It was opened in 1998 in the year of the 500th anniversary of the opening of this famous Portuguese navigator sea route from Europe to India.
■ Bayladeyras, ie, ballerina, dancer so romantically called high waves that form in the Bay of Mar da Paglia with certain combinations of wind and currents.

Kaluga – Regional center

KalugaThe harmonious appearance of the city Kaluga create original surviving monuments of the church, in the spirit of classical mansions and cottages, which have rarely seen in other cities: odnoetazhki in the Empire style decorated with typically three windows with cornices heavily outdoor fans. The real heart of the city is the Trinity Cathedral (from 1786), the architecture of which are interwoven in Classicism features of the Byzantine style.
Nikolai Gogol (1809-852 years.), Who came to visit the family of the governor of the Kaluga saw reflected in the surface of the river ancient city in thrall compared it with a small Constantinople. This comparison is not accidental: the churches here and today a lot, and used to be and even more. Locals believe the number of surviving churches (Christ the age of 33) symbolic.
The first people settled in these lands 5-7 thousand years ago. Scientists are still arguing about the origin of the name of the city. STARORUSSKAYA words Kaluga, kaluzhka Kalyuzhina and used to be called the marshland. There is a marsh flower kaluzhka buttercup family, and is next door Kaluzhka river. Consonant with the word Kaliga in Finno-Ugric languages represent a blind spot forestry. Kaluga is still in some parts of the peninsula is called. And one of the most original version even links the occurrence of words with Finno-Ugric ending-n, which is denoted by the process of the development of the movement. If so, the Kaluga / Koluga means moving around or cola surrounded by flowing water Oka. There are those researchers who translate the name of the city as a piece of meadow or phrases about the relationship of the river and the Russian steppe: Eye of meadows.
As for the movement, the historical Kaluga really changed its position, at least four times. The modern city began to grow around the ancient city of Simeon border fortress on the river cell based at the Moscow Prince Simeon the Proud (1316-1353 gg., The eldest son of Ivan Kalita). First mentioned in 1371 in a document from the Lithuanian Grand Duke Algirdas (1296-1377 gg.).
But mention in later documents, and the remains of ancient settlements indicate that the right-Kaluga located near the village of Kaluzhki, on the river Kaluzhke, seven versts (now the eastern edge of the city). Then the fort was moved downstream to the confluence with the Oka Kaluzhki. The third time, the city moved to the shore of the river cells, and only the fourth time was at its present location. To drive away the townspeople from their homes in those distant ages would much: and pestilence, and fires and looting, and attacks enemies.
In Kaluga related to many important events in Russian history. For example, in 1480 near the town was standing on the Ugra not taken place, in fact, the battle between the forces of Ahmad Khan (7-1481 years.) And Ivan III (1440-1505 gg.), Demonstrating the strength of the Russian army and its readiness to fight back, it marked the end of the Mongol yoke. In the XVII century. City shaking events connected with names claiming to Russian throne False Dmitry I (7-1606's.) and False Dmitry II (7-1610's.) and adventuress Marina Mnishek (1588-1614's.) brightest member state of the importance many cases age Time of Troubles. Kaluga was one of the centers of the schism: the exiled Avvakum (1620 or 1621-1682 gg.), Which is revered as a martyr Old Believers, and boyarynya Theodosius Prokopievna Morozov (1632-1675 gg.) Contained in Pafnutevskom Borovsky monastery that far.
The city has repeatedly been the ruin, as it was originally conceived as an outpost, but no wars have enough troubles: fires and epidemics.
Yet economic development is gradually gaining momentum: one of the first plants to produce iron appeared here. The development of industry and contributed to the successful location of trade and culture: it was opened in Kaluga, one of the first theaters in Russia, where she began her career as a great dramatic actress Maria Savina Gavrilovna (1854-1915 gg.).Kaluga map
By the beginning of the XIX century. City grasped another crisis: shoaled his main artery of the Eye, linking the cities of Kaluga other strong trade ties. Industrial boom receded, the population began to decrease (new prosperity came during the Soviet era, when the development of engineering and spurred other industries).
During the War of 1812 Kaluga was thus a strong rear, whose support has been so critical of the Russian army. It formed the militia. For his contribution to the victory the city was awarded the personal gratitude of Field Marshal Mikhail Kutuzov (1745-1813 gg.).
During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945. Kaluga, which was occupied for only two months, again assumed the role of a reliable rear. In 1944 he acquired the status of Kaluga oblast center, leading the Kaluga region. In the industry, there is still a good base for the development of mechanical engineering and automotive (plant of Volkswagen, since 2007).
Kaluga enjoyed visiting the many outstanding people. Here there GR Derzhavin, AS Pushkin, VA Zhukovsky, NV Gogol, ST Aksakov, LN Tolstoy, VG Belinsky, lived after the exile in Siberia Decembrists GS Batenkov, NP Whistleblowers, EP Obolensky, born architectural historian and critic GK Lukomskii artist IJ Bilibin. In Kaluga Drama Theatre performed PS Mochalov and MS Shepkin, GN Fedotov, MG Savin. The city worked biologist AL Chizhevsky and mathematician PL Chebyshev and other prominent figures of science and art. Poet Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941 gg.), Lived nearby, Tarus. He was born on this earth future Marshal of the USSR Georgy Zhukov (1896-1974 gg.). Native village (at the factory Ugodskom) of Marshal Zhukov in 1974 was renamed to Zhukov. But for the very cradle of space a key figure of modern history is, of course, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935 gg.). Thanks to his discoveries and brilliant hunches Kaluga in our minds into a space city. It opened the world's first Space Museum. The house is also a museum of Tsiolkovsky.

GENERAL INFORMATION

The first written mention: 1371
Status of the regional center: from 1944
Official nickname: Cradle of Cosmonautics.
Administrative affiliation: the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Central Federal District.
Language: Russian.
Religion: prevailing orthodoxy.
Ethnic composition: predominantly Russian.
Rivers: Oka, Ugra.

FIGURES

Area: 170.5 km2.

Population: 326400 (2012).
Population density: 1,914.4 inhabitants / km2.
Elevation: 190 m
Distance from Moscow: 174 km.

CLIMATE

Temperate.

The average temperature in January: -10.1 C.
The average temperature in July: +17.5 C.
Average annual precipitation: 630 mm.

ECONOMY

Industry: engineering, instrumentation, chemical, food, light industry, wood, construction materials.
Agriculture: crop production.
Scope of services: tourism and trade.

ATTRACTIONS

Church: Intercession on the Moat (1687), George for Horse riding (1700-1701 gg.), Of the Transfiguration (1709-1717 gg.), Sign (1720-1731 gg.), Trinity Cathedral (1786-1819 gg.). Cosmas and Damian Church (1794).
Museums: History of Cosmonautics. Tsiolkovsky (1967), the house-museum of Tsiolkovsky Museum of Marshal Zhukov, the museum-estate Goncharov, 1812 Museum, Museum of Craft.
Parks: Ugra National Park, park them. Tsiolkovsky.
Other: Stone house Korobov (1697), the stone houses of the XVIII century., Stone Bridge (1777-1778.), Government offices (1780-1785 gg.), Seating yard (1785-88 gg., Being completed in 1811 – 1821)., home Kologrivova Zolotarev (1805-1808 gg., now a museum) and Meshkov (the beginning of the XIX century., now the State Bank), Nobility (1848-1850.), an ensemble of the Theatre Square (1958) Hotel Kaluga (1969), a monument to Tsiolkovsky (1958).

Curiosities

■ City of Kaluga than once served as a place of honor links to many influential persons and historical figures. Thus, in XVI. about 17 years there spent exiled Ivan the Terrible POW Crimean Ambassador Jan Bolden. In 1599 he lived in Kaluga Swedish prince Gustav, the groom's daughter of Boris Godunov. In 1786, the city of Kaluga was a place of exile for the last of the Crimean Khan Shahin Giray, and in the XIX century. for the Sultan Bukeyev horde. But the most famous prisoner of Kaluga was the third Imam of Dagestan and Chechnya, Shamil (1797-1871 gg.). After the surrender with honor in 1859, during the Caucasian War (1817-1864.) He lived until 1868 in Kaluga, while Alexander II did not allow him to move to a more favorable climate in respect of Kiev.

■ Since the XVIII Kaluga received its coat of arms, which is three times mutated. March 10, 1777 Catherine II (1729-1796 gg.) Approved the image of the Oka River and crown on the coat of arms of the city. Crown during the Soviet era was replaced by a space satellite. Since 2000, the city was returned to Catherine's coat of arms, which is at the bottom of the first satellite flies around the red ribbon with the inscription: The Cradle of space.
■ From 1 July 2012 the Kaluga region borders directly with Moscow.
■ Soon after the first manned space flight, June 13, 1961, the foundation stone of the Museum of Cosmonautics. Konstantin Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935 gg.) In Kaluga laid Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968 gg.).
■ Kaluga being branded theatrical city in the Tsarist and Soviet Russia. In Kaluga, a monument to the audience: Girl looks at the faces of passers-by with a sign there any extra tickets?.
■ After the demonstration of the rocket Vostok at air shows in Paris, Rome, Bucharest, Budapest, Prague, Turin and the same ship, which displays one of the first satellites into orbit, June 21, 1973 set in Kaluga near Space Museum in the park to them. Tsiolkovsky.

Maldives (Maldives) – Video tour

The main wonders of Maldives are hidden under the water. They draw on a trip to the Maldives thousands of tourists from all over the world. Fascinating rich wealth of flora and fauna, lush coral gardens make visitors aside from the usual routine. Corals in the Maldives are a record number of species. In the crystal clear water as the sun's rays are refracted in the lens, the underwater world seems even more colorful and richer. The lens increases and possible danger, however guides soothe sharks do not perceive us as lunch.
Paradise in the Indian Ocean consists of the islands scattered about 800 kilometers long from north to south. Only 200 out of nearly 1,200 islands are inhabited. The total surface of all the islands is about 300 km2.

Sayan Mountains – Mountains of Siberia

Sayan Mountains (mountains of Siberia)Sayan mountainous country in Siberia. Written documents and maps of the XVII century. point to the fact that the original was known for only one object, named for a small Sayan Sayan Ridge Stone (currently Sayan Ridge). Later the name Sayan spread throughout the mountainous region of Altai to Baikal and is now divided into the Western Sayan and Eastern Sayan Mountains, which are located in the surrounding basins: Minusinskaya, Tuva, and Todzhinskoy Tunkinskaya.
West Sayan is a system extending to the north-east ranges separated by river valleys. East Sayan is located at a right angle to the West, from the left bank of the Yenisei River in the south-east almost to the southern tip of Lake Baikal.
Arched-blocky Sayan included in the largest and most typical of the inland zone (eniplat-shaped) orogeny Central Asia, including the Hindu Kush mountain structures, Tien Shan, Pamir, Kunlun, Nan Shan, Qinling, Altai, Sayan, Baikal, Trans-Baikal, becoming the ridge, which formed on mature continental crust, after a long period of relative tectonic quiescence. In the case of Sayan we can talk about one of the oldest geological materials in Russia, on the Late Proterozoic rocks of the Early Paleozoic, and magmatic granitoids (manifestations alkaline basalt volcanism in the Eastern Sayan Mountains). Nor height, nor the size of the secondary mountains Orogen are not inferior to the young, the primary orogenic Alps and others.
At many sites, the top of the Sayan Mountains covered by glaciers. In the highest massifs of the Eastern Sayan known 190 glaciers with a total area of about 30 km2. Much of the peaks occupied snowfields: fixed accumulations of snow in the valleys and hollows, protected from the wind and sun. Ranges covered with snow fields, create a system BELOGORIYA, the most famous Ottoman and Kan. Many glaciers persist throughout the summer, for which dubbed pereletkami. Neta year-round snow on the tops of the Sayan Mountains were nicknamed proteins.
The highest peak of the Western Sayan Kyzyl-Taiga, sacred to Tuva: her foot locals bury their shamans. Name of a mountain in Tuvan red mountain covered with forest. Munch-Sardyk the highest point of the Eastern Sayan, and its name in the Buryat means eternal char. Loach in Siberia has long been called the treeless mountains. Munch-Sardis is located on the border of Russia (Buryatia) and Mongolia. The first ascent to the summit made in 1858 by Gustav Radtse (1831-1903 gg.) Russian geographer and naturalist, corresponding member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Sayan river rapids, which have large reserves of hydropower, flow into the wetland valleys formed by glaciers, and belong to the basin of the Yenisei. Glacial lakes are rich in fish, mainly Siberian grayling.
The main obstacle for the development of agriculture and the development of the territory of the Sayan valley thickness of permafrost. On the slopes of the Sayan mountain taiga prevails passing in subalpine and alpine meadows, and even higher in the mountain tundra.
Two-meter ounce cat still lives in Sayan gorges, although its population is threatened with extinction.
More than half of the area occupied by Sayan mountain taiga landscapes with dark coniferous spruce-pine-fir or larch-light pine forests. Tops and slopes of the mountains are rocky tundra with Kurumi stone streams originating on the tops of the mountains.
In Sayan live brown bear, deer, musk deer, wolverine, sable, lynx, and is listed as endangered snow leopard, also known as the snow leopard. In the mountain tundra reindeer graze.Sayan Mountains Map
For Conservation of Nature Sayan established two wildlife reserve Sayano-Shushenskaya in the Western Sayan and Poles in the East. Sayano-Shushenskaya Reserve is located in the center of the Western Sayan on both sides of the Main Sayan Mountains. The purpose of its creation was to protect a precious sable fur.
The reserve was founded by Poles at the initiative of the residents of Krasnoyarsk to save the pillars of rocks of volcanic origin.
People have mastered the Sayan Intermountain about 35-40 thousand years ago, from the days were stone tools found at prehistoric campsites, for example, in the area of Afontova mountains. Later, it was first domesticated reindeer. The ancestors of the indigenous inhabitants of Sayan received iron and copper traded from across Asia.
Excavations in the Western Sayan and finds Uyukskaya monuments of culture in the Valley of the Kings near the river Uyuk mass graves of men and horses in the mounds Arjaan-1 (dates back to the IX-VIII. Before. District. E.) And Arjaan-2 (intact burial VI-V centuries . BC. Oe. Scythian leader with his wife, where it was found about 20 kg of gold objects and jewelry in the Scythian-Siberian animal style), turned an idea of the development of the arts and crafts of the ancient Scythians. A collection of the Hermitage workshops restored in gold objects (more than a thousand, and they will be on temporary exhibitions in the best museums of the world) is stored in a museum in the capital of the Republic of Tuva Kyzyl.
The existence of Sayan learned Russian in 1615 from the documents of the expedition royal ambassadors in Tuva. Fifty years later, on the banks of the rivers Sayan only way to transport those wild places of the construction of forts (fortified settlements). However, these lands were settled slowly due to the harsh climate.
Subsequently, there were two waves of mass migration of Russian in these places: the first after the abolition of serfdom in 1861, the second during the Stolypin agrarian reforms, which began in 1906, Land suitable for arable farming usual classes Russian peasants were quickly mastered. Because they often had conflicts with the indigenous population.
In Soviet times, the Sayan basins were built several highways for operation of iron ore and gold mines, but still Sayan remain sparsely populated territory. The most remote and uninhabited area of Sayan Tofalariya. Here live Tofalars or Tofs, one of the smallest nations in Russia: their numbers are barely more than 700 people.
Sayan population lives mainly along rivers and roads, including those engaged in the service of tourists and mountaineers.
In Abakan-Minusinskaya basin, numerous archaeological sites. In East Sayan large number of waterfalls. In the West Sayan Ergaki Nature Park, among the rocks treated glacier.
It is often possible to see about building made of stones and branches where the locals ask the gods for good fortune and leave them tribute. To have survived the epic tale of the hero Geser in different versions of the peoples of Sayan. Geser cleared land from monsters and established peace. His soldiers were petrified and turned into Sayan mountains, and Geser lives on top of the highest mountain Sayan Munch-Sardyk being his throne.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: South Siberia west of Lake Baikal.

Administrative affiliation: Western Sayan mountains south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the north of the Republic of Tyva, East Sayan Mountains south of Krasnoyarsk Krai and Irkutsk region, west of the Republic of Buryatia, north-east of the Republic of Tyva.
The largest rivers of the Western Sayan: Khemchik, Big Ury, Naked, Pashkina, Halavan, Kantegir, Joy, Abakan, Us, Kazyrsug, Birch, Shush, Oya, Tyva with Amyl and Kazyru.
The largest rivers of the Eastern Sayan: Big Yenisey, Kizir, Kazyr, Uda, Ham, Cheese, Syda, Sisim, Mans, Caen, Agul, Tuba, Biryusa, Uda, eye, Irkut.
The largest lakes Todzha, Mana-Hol-Hol Kadish, Kara-Khol, Beduy (taimen) Pazyrym, Argadanskie and Buybinskie, Black, Oi, Tulber-Hol.
The major airport: International Airport Sheremetyevo (Krasnoyarsk).

FIGURES

Area: about 250 000 km2.

The length: West Sayan Mountains 650 km East Sayan about 1000 km.
Population density: less than 1 person / km2.
The highest peaks: West Sayan mountain Kyzyl-Taiga (3122 m), Eastern Sayan mountain Munch-Sardyk (3491 m).

CLIMATE

Sharply continental. Altitudinal zonation.
Long and cold winter, short and cool summers.
The average temperature in January:25C in the mountains,-30C in the intermountain basins.

The average temperature in July: + 12C in the mountains, +20 C in the intermountain basins.
Average annual precipitation: 300-350 mm in the intermountain basins, 400-500 mm in the foothills and on the southern slopes of the mountains, 1000-1200 mm on the northern slopes of the mountains.
Relative humidity: 70%.

ECONOMY

On the basis of mineral and hydroelectric resources created Sayan territorial-production complex. Mining of iron ores is conducted in Abakan, Irbinskom deposits and deposits Krasnokamensk group.

Minerals: West Sayan iron, copper, molybdenum, tungsten ore, gold, asbestos, Eastern Sayan iron, titanium, aluminum, lead and zinc ore, gold, and rare earth metals, mica, phosphate, magnesite, graphite.
Hydropower: Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP.

ATTRACTIONS

Natural: Turanian hot springs spa resort Nilo Desert Island (East Sayan), Stone Town (Western Sayan), Mount Kyzyl-Taiga (West Sayan), mountain glaciers and Munch-Sardyk (East Sayan), Minusinskaya hollow, Manske and Kan Belogoriya, rocky ridge Sleeping Sayan (West Sayan), Big Yenisey river, a mountain range Tunkinskie Goltzes (East Sayan), waterfalls Hamsarinsky, Dototsky, Udi, Bii-Khem, canyons and large Kishti Dotota, cirque Bear Lake, Lower Suruntsinskoe, Watch-Hyp, Shuthulay-Nur and Kara-Balik, volcanoes Peretolchina and Kropotkin, rock Hanging Rock (West Sayan), caves Badzheyskaya, Cuban and Oreshskaya.
Reserves and natural parks: Natural park Ergaki (West Sayan), Sayano-reserve (West Sayan), reserve Pillars (Krasnoyarsk).
Archaeological: Paleolithic in Afontova Mountains (Krasnoyarsk), Scythian burial mounds near the village Arzhaan (West Sayan).
Ethnographic: Tofalariya (Central Sayan) area of residence of the small people Tofalars or Tof.
IndustrialSayano-Shushenskaya HPP.

Curiosities

■ Located at the foot of the mountains Minusinskaya Basin was nicknamed the Siberian Italy for its unique warm and even hot climate of these places, and dry summers, which allows you to grow fruit here and even melons.
■ Volcanoes Kropotkin and young Peretolchina large extinct volcanoes in the paddy Hee-goal in the Republic of Buryatia. Crater diameter of about 200 meters altitude above the lava field about 120 meters
■ In Sayan, on the Yenisei River, built by the Sayano-Shushenskaya hydroelectric power station is the largest in Russia, the sixth of the existing hydroelectric power plants in the world. Construction of power plant was begun in 1963 and completed in 1985

■ In the XIX century. in Krasnoyarsk Pillars social movement was born, named stolbizm: with all the Russian people came here to conquer the pinnacles and get acquainted. Difficult to climb rocks contributed to the creation of outstanding school rock climbers and mountaineers the world level. Currently Pillars annually visited by more than 200 thousand people.
■ Rock Hanging Rock is one of the main attractions of the reserve Ergaki. This is a huge stone that it is not clear how hovered on the edge of the cliff into the lake rainbow. In fact, the stone is held firmly and all attempts to push it manually force of 30-40 people have failed.
■ Near Irkutsk has a Nil deserts (in honor wished to found a monastery Archbishop of Irkutsk and Irkutsk Nerchinskogo Nile (Nikolai Fedorovich Isakovic (1799-1874 gg.), While at Seliger deserts in honor of St.. Nile Stolbensky.) Now this resort at the hot springs whose medicinal properties have been investigated in 1840 by order of the governor, who gave the land as a gift to the Archbishop of the Nile in 1845, Bishop Neil organized here holding worship services in the Buryat language. Archbishop interested in Buddhism, ethnography, geology, and painting. His Eminence repeatedly went on Shumak. has a fine collection of minerals, now kept in the mineralogical museum of St. Petersburg University. came to the sources in exile in Siberia, the Decembrists.
 

Ubangi – Diamond River

Ubangi RiverUbangi River is the largest tributary of the Congo River, the fifth longest river in Africa. The river begins at the border with the Central African Republic Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the town of Giacomo, after the confluence of Mbomou and Node. In the upper reaches of the Ubangi rapids, waterfalls and abundant divided into a sleeve extending between the elongated along the course of the islands. In the middle reaches of the Ubangi out on a flat broad marshy valley and flows along the coast, covered with equatorial forests. At the confluence with the Congo near the village Irebu Ubangi river forms a delta width of 12 km and Lake Tumba.
The river is navigable all year round from the city of Bangui, the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic to continue for 650 km to the confluence of the Congo. In those rare years when the water is very high and the rapids are flooded, ships going up the Ubangi until the merger of its origins. Ubangi very important transport artery CAR, as the rainy season most of the roads are flooded.
Ubangi River is of great importance as a transport artery: on the bed of her can take vessels of up to 600 tons in terms underdeveloped road network (especially in the rainy season when roads blurs), and the almost complete absence of railways river is the lifeline for the people of the Central African Republic ( CAR), a country with no other way out to the ocean.
Research conducted for the first time Ubangi basin expedition German botanist Georg August Schweinfurth (1836-1925 gg.). In a study of river deltas in the basin of the Nile and the Congo in 1870, the scientist found a previously unknown source of the Ubangi river Uele, discovery and scientific description of which he became famous. Another great fame brought him a detailed description of cannibalistic rituals Mangbetu people living in the Central African jungle. In addition, Schweinfurt opened the Pygmies and, finally proved the existence of pygmy peoples in tropical Africa.
After a few years the expedition Russian traveler Basil Juncker (1840-1892 gg.) Has determined that the Uele really belongs to the basin of the Congo River.
At Sango, the official language of the Central African Republic, the name of the Ubangi River (near Bang) means the rapids. The name stands on the banks of the river is the capital Bangui, respectively, thresholds. In the river bed is really a lot of rapids and rapids.
Until the end of the XIX century. Europeans did not dare to explore the Ubangi River basin. This interfered with tropical rains, impassable swamps, malaria and sleeping sickness, which is the carrier of the tsetse fly.Ubangi River Card
In 1876, Belgium's King Leopold II (1835-1909 gg.) Created the International African Association for the purpose of space exploration in the Ubangi River. In 1885 the king, whom all Europe was referred to as a wheeler-dealer, created the so-called Congo Free State, which became his own possession, he ran through the International African Association. On the banks of the Ubangi, where in Europe supplied ivory and rubber, set to a very tight operation of the local population, for which the king set up his own private army.
In 1908, the resourceful Belgian king sold its African ownership of their own country of Belgium. So a colony of the Belgian Congo, the area is ten times greater than the Belgian, which existed before independence in 1960 in the country now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Central African Republic until 1960 was a colony of France under the name Ubangi-Shari.
The Republic of Congo is also up to 1960 belonged to the French.
Periodically offered projects to transfer flow Ubangi-Chari river valley filling drying up of Lake Chad. The first project was launched in 1960. and offered to expand the water in the direction of the Ubangi-Chari. Similar projects have emerged in the 1980s and 1990s. The drying up of Lake Chad will lead to the death of people living on its banks, and so in 2008 began design work in the basin of the Ubangi. On the consequences of the implementation of this ambitious project for the people on the banks of the Ubangi authors are silent.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: Congo Basin, Central Africa.

A natural border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo.
Catering: mostly rainy.
Source: confluence Mbomou and Uele.
The estuary: delta at the confluence of the River Congo.
The largest tributaries Right Nuabale, Ibenga, Lobaye, Koto, M'poko, left Geary, Lua.
The main port: city of Bangui.
The river is navigable: from the city of Bangui, 650 km.
Largest cities: Mbandaka (DRC) 729,257 attendees. (2004), Bangui (CAR) 622,771 attendees. (2006), Gemena (DRC) 117,639 attendees. (2007), Bambara (CAR) 41,356 people. (2003).

FIGURES

Length: 2272 km from the source Uele 3402 km.
Pool: The Congo River and the Atlantic Ocean.
The basin area: 754,830 km2.
Average water consumption: 5936 m3/ S (in the mouth).
Maximum flow rate (During the floods in the rainy season, May to December): more than 14 thousand m3/ Sec.
Minimum water flow (Lack of water in the February-April): 1,000 m3/ Sec.
Water level: maximum in October, the minimum in March.
Width: from 2.5 to 4 km in the lower reaches.
Depth: up to 11 m at the confluence of the Congo.

CLIMATE

Equatorial.
The annual average temperature:
+28C.

Average annual precipitation: 1100-1700 mm.
The rainy season: March-November.
Relative humidity: 75%.

ECONOMY

Mineral resources in the basin: diamonds and gold.

Fishing.
Scope of services:
transport (inland shipping, ferries), travel.

ATTRACTIONS

Natural: Elefan waterfalls, Gozbangi, Bu'aale, Ngola (a tributary of Coto) thresholds Azande.
City Bangui (CAR), Arch of Bokassa, the Presidential Palace, Central Market, Marché Central, Museum of the B. Boganda, the Catholic Cathedral of Notre Dame, University of Bangui, the archaeological excavations of the Iron Age, the area of the Republic, the area of Kay-Chink, residence of Emperor Bokassa.
Reserve Zemongo (CAR): elephants, black rhinos, antelopes, cheetahs, leopards, lions.
M'Baiki (CAR): the main area of the tribal pygmies.

Curiosities

■ In the waters of the Ubangi and Congo Ubangi with fish or fish-elephant, length 35 cm So she was called for an elongated lower lip as a mobile, flexible, two-centimeter-fingered appendage. Ubangi move in all directions, even the tail back and belly up, in very turbid water, for orientation using the electric organs, which are located at the end of the body and tail of the stem and create around the fish's body a constant electric field.

■ Jean-Bedel Bokassa (1921-1996 gg.), President of the Central African Republic (1966-1976 gg.), And then the Emperor Bokassa I (1976-1979 gg.). Bokassa is considered to be the most original dictator of the XX century. He did not hide his addiction to cannibalism, ordered the coronation crown that cost a quarter of annual exports, and repeated the coronation ceremony of the coronation of the French Emperor Napoleon I (1769-1821 gg.), Which Bokassa idolized. He left the throne in a coup in 1979 and died of a heart attack in 1996 have Bokassa had 18 wives and 77 children recognized them. In 2010, posthumously rehabilitated in the CAR and called a great humanist and a son of the nation.
■ Ubangi River basin known place of extraction of diamonds. The government can not control wild prey, and about half of the diamonds out of the country illegally.

Iran – video tour

Name of territory in the south-west of modern Iran happened inhabited the country from the Persians. The ancient Greeks also called Persia territory inhabited by Indians. The name Iran appeared in 1935 comes from the name of another ancient Aryan people.

From India and China along the Silk Road to the west went silks, jewelry, incense and spices, and with them, the representatives of different nations, cultures and religions. Stones in the desert can tell you about the people who first came here three thousand years ago.

Much of Iran is not fit for agriculture. On a dry upland migrate nomads, selling in the cities of butter, cheese, meat, wool, sheep and goats. Their life has not changed for a thousand years.

Australia – Video tour

In April 1770 off the coast of the Gulf of Botany (Botany Bay), near present-day Sydney, landed English navigator James Cook. The edge of the Australian Aborigines has been detected. Open got on the continent maps of white people, and his life began to change rapidly.
Over the years, Australia was a British colony, today it is a modern, democratic state. Its full title of Australia.
Australia has six states and two federal territories. It ranks sixth in the world-largest territory. If we represent Australia at the European scale, the island continent will take place from Iceland to Istanbul and from Madrid to Moscow.

Limassol – Cyprus City

LimassolLimassol's second largest city of Cyprus. It is located on the southern coast of Cyprus and is one of the most important export and transit ports of the Eastern Mediterranean. The main export products are wine and brandy, textiles, asbestos and ocher. A main item of import continuous stream of foreign tourists on their way to the best beaches in Cyprus this sunny city.
Limassol stretches along the coast from east to west by 15 km. The city has arisen between the two ancient settlements of Amathus and Kourion on the Bay of Akrotiri. The historical center of Limassol is situated between medieval castle with a chapel built by the Byzantines in the beginning of the X century. (This is where Richard the Lionheart married), and the old port. The new port of Limassol to become the premier of the Republic of Cyprus after the port of Famagusta was on the Turkish part of the island.
In the IV-I centuries. BC. e. on the site of the present Limassol, between the ancient cities of Kourion and Amathus formed a new settlement, which at one time called Neapolis new town. He often changed the names, depending on who rules here, until I finally stuck its present name in three versions: Lemesos (Greek), Leymosun (Tur), Limassol (in English).
Ancient historians did not mention the city in his works, the exact date of its foundation is unknown, but the findings suggest that the most ancient tombs have been made here about 4 thousand years ago. The town was first called Lemesos, who was part of the Byzantine Empire, mentioned in documents in X. He gained fame during the Third Crusade 1189-1192 gg. In the campaign was attended by several European kings, among them the English King Richard I the Lionheart (1157-1199 gg.).
On the way to the Holy Land of its fleet caught in a heavy storm and four vessels were washed ashore in Cyprus. Three ships were broken, the fourth miraculously survived. On board were a sister of King Richard John English (1165-1199 gg.) And his fiancée Berengaria of Navarre (1165/1170-1230 years.).
In those years, the island of the rules relative of the Byzantine Emperor Isaac Comnenus (about 1155 1195/1196 years.) Adventurer, unscrupulous man and cruel tyrant who seized power in Cyprus in 1184 with a company of mercenaries. He himself appointed Patriarch of Cyprus, which was immediately crowned him as emperor.
After learning about who is on board the ship, Isaac Comnenus gave orders to give custody and demanded ransom for them to Richard. It is not known what happened next.
King Richard distinguished for his bravery and quick temper at the same time. According to one source, mad with rage, Richard ordered troops to storm the citadel of Limassol. Emperor of Trebizond on other still let the ship with the noble ladies, but gave them no water, no food. It is known that Richard took Komnina custody and, according to tradition, ordered to chain it to the silver chains, as previously gave him a royal word of honor that no zakuet it in iron. Subsequently Trebizond escaped, but was poisoned by order of the emperor of Byzantium.
May 12, 1191 in no extant chapel of St. George at the ancient castle of Limassol King Richard married Berengaria of Navarre, proclaiming her Queen of England, Cyprus, and this is the only wedding of British monarchs away from home. In the future, they hardly saw each other: the queen lived in the French Le Mans, and her husband spent the rest of his life in the campaigns.
Richard sold the island of Cyprus in 1192 the Order of the Templars for 100 thousand gold Besant, but the Master of the Order raised taxes so much that Cypriots rebelled. Richard then quickly found a new buyer of the Crusaders a relative of Guy de Lusignan, who was to return the Knights Templar 40 thousand Besant deposit and pay 60 thousand to the king of England, which was done. Thus was formed the state of the Crusaders Kingdom of Cyprus (the Hospital), which lasted until 1489, when the widow of the last of the dynasty Luizinyanskoy, a noble Venetian, bequeathed the island of the Venetian Republic.
Vo time of expansion of the Ottoman Empire in 1570 Limassol surrendered without a fight, and after the conclusion of the Cyprus Convention, 1879, by virtue of which the Turks handed power over the island of Great Britain, the British settled in the city. They restored seaport, built the first hotels and clubs, as well as created to the west of the naval base of Akrotiri, one of two overseas territories (the second in the Declaration of Famagusta) that Britain did not want to give away after the abolition of the British colony of Cyprus in 1960
In Limassol has long lived and the Greeks and the Turks. After the Greco-Turkish conflict in Cyprus, when in 1974 the island was divided into the Republic of Cyprus and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is not recognized by the international community, the majority of Turkish Cypriots left the Limassol to North Cyprus. When the situation is more or less returned to normal, the Turks began to return to their homes. From the 1990's. the number of the Turkish population in the Turkish quarter of Limassol has been steadily growing.Map Limassol
In Cyprus, a lot of expats living: first of all it is the Greeks from the mainland, the British, Romanians, Bulgarians, Filipinos Remarkably, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in Limassol dramatically increased the number of citizens of Russia and Ukraine in Russian script found at every corner. A significant portion of immigrants from Russia account for Pontiac residents Pontic Greeks, who left his homeland in 1990. Russian-speakers in the metropolitan area has about 40 thousand people., And yet the city annually attracts about 150 thousand Russian tourists and business visitors this despite the fact that the entire population of the municipality of Limassol about 100 thousand people. A large role in the Russification of Limassol played a total for the Greeks and the Russian Orthodox religion. Russian community has grown so much that calls his second home Limasolgrad whether in jest or earnest. The city has issued Russian weekly Bulletin of Cyprus, have a couple of Russian schools and Russian radio station. It just so happened that in 2006 became the first mayor of a man speaking in Russian: Andreas Christou (born in Limassol in 1948) studied engineering in Moscow. More than 25% of the bank accounts of Limassol and more than a third of all foreign investments owned by immigrants from Russia or Russian citizens.
Secured attract foreigners in Cyprus low taxes and the ability to easily get a visa or simply to live and work without a visa. Cypriots themselves refer to the dominance of foreigners quietly: We have always lived side by side with the foreigners. Therefore learned not to think of them as strangers. Foreigners bring the City considerable income, in particular, registering ships under the Cyprus flag of convenience and thousands of offshore companies to avoid paying taxes in their home country. Financial flowering Limassol, while the Republic of Cyprus itself is virtually bankrupt, because Limassol declared a free port, and is developing its own program.
In this program, a lot of attention is paid to the many residents of Limassol holidays love them. So, they are the first since 1890 in Cyprus began conducting annual carnival Apokreo. It is usually compared to the Russian Maslenitsa, it begins 50 days before Orthodox Easter, and is held annually for two weeks before Lent.
Another great holiday in Limassol Wine Festival is the first time took place in 1961, making wine here for 6 thousand years, Limassol from ancient Greece is the center of wine production in the eastern Mediterranean. Wine Festival is dedicated to the ancient Greek god of wine Dionysus, and one in Limassol Orthodox do not mind that the heathen god Dionysus. The symbol of the wine festival vintner seven meter statue in traditional national costume vrakase winemakers.
In addition, each year in Limassol celebrate figs, flowers and fair conduct Folk Dance Festival.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: southern coast of the island, in the Gulf of Akrotiri.
The administrative center of Limassol District.

The first written mention: X c. (Settlement founded more BC).
Languages: Greek, Turkish, Russian, and English.
Ethnic composition: 40% of Greeks, Turks, 7%, and other (Russian, English, etc.) 53%.
Religions: Orthodox Christianity, Islam, Catholicism.
Currency: euro.
The largest river is: Garilis.
International airports: Paphos and Larnaca.

FIGURES

Area: 34.87 km2.
Population: 101 000 people. (Agglomeration of about 180,000 people.) (2011).
Population density: 2,896.5 inhabitants / km2.
Distance: 63 km from Nico these, 59 km from Larnaca.

CLIMATE

Mediterranean.

Sunny days per year: 340.
The average temperature in January: +11C.
The average temperature in July: +27C.
Average annual precipitation: 400 mm.
Relative humidity: 70%.

ECONOMY

GDP of the Republic of Cyprus: ,72 billion
GDP per capita: 074 (2011 g.)
Economic, tourist, cultural and financial center of the Republic of Cyprus.
Industry: food processing (wine), light industry (textiles, footwear), furniture, construction (cement), the port industry (commercial port terminal container and passenger ships).
Traditional crafts: pottery, jewelry, lace, wicker baskets, ceramics, mosaics, wood carvings.
Scope of services: travel, financial (offshore business and registration of vessels with a flag of convenience), trade, transportation.

ATTRACTIONS

History: The ruins of the ancient city of Amathus (acropolis with the temple of Aphrodite, the agora market area, the remains of the walls of the old harbor, bathing, water IXVIII centuries. BC. E.), Archaeological site of Sotira (dwelling II millennium BC. E.), The ruins of the city State-Curio (mosaics, a complex of buildings Nymphaeum, an aqueduct, baths, houses, an amphitheater, a sanctuary of Apollo Ilatisa (Forest), II c. BC. e.), Limassol Medieval Castle (built by the Byzantines in the beginning of X century.), the castle of Kolossi (1210), the Old Port (the end of the XIII century.).
Architectural: Mollos Limassol promenade, Central Market (arched building of the early XX century.), The Town Hall, Theatre Pattihion (1986), New Port (XX century.).
Museums: Archaeological Museum, the Museum of the Middle Ages the castle of Limassol, Ethnographic Museum, the Museum of wine in winery (Erimi village), an art gallery, the Museum of Folk Art.
Places of worship: Catholic church, mosque Jami Kebir (konetsXVI in.), Temple Ayu-Amir (XVII c.), The Church of Ayia Athanasia (1835-1850 gg.), The Church of St. Catherine in the Baroque (1879), the church of Ayia Napa (1906), the church of Agios Anronikos (1970.), the monastery of Agios Georgios Alamanou.
Ethnographic: Episkopi village and Pissouri.
Other: The vineyards on the southern slopes of the Troodos Mountains, press for pressing olive oil (VII-IX centuries.) Zoo.

Curiosities

■ According to local legend, in ancient times of drought in Limassol divorced lot of vipers. Local residents began to leave Cyprus in search of suitable accommodation. On hearing this, St. Helen decided to help the people. The decision was original: she brought to the island in 1000 cats that in the absence of other food vividly dealt with reptiles. Currently, the area of Limassol is the Monastery of St. Nicholas, which is popularly called a feline. Here there are many cats that are fed by tourists.
■ More than half of the registered in Cyprus offshore companies have opened their offices in Limassol.
■ In Limassol, as well as throughout Cyprus, big problems with water supply. Fresh water too little, and it delivered by tanker from Greece.

■ In the vicinity of Amathus are quarries, where in the middle of the XX century. cut huge blocks of stone and delivered to Egypt for the construction of the Suez Canal.
■ In 2008, Limassol hosted Junior Eurovision Song Contest.
■ In 2000, the city park Limassol opened monument to the great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1799-1837 gg.). The monument donated Cyprus Moscow government in honor of the 200th anniversary of Pushkin's birth.
■ Sculpture Park in Limassol stretches along the coast. It presents 20 works of Cypriot and foreign artists, established here from 1999 to 2001.

Montpellier – France City

MontpellierFrench is often called the capital of Montpelier South of France for the beauty and importance of his role in history. The city stands on the banks of the River Lez, 12 km from the coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions). This is a dynamic city, the third largest in the French Mediterranean, the largest population among the top ten in the country. Known as a traditional center of winemaking and wine trade. Currently, in the Languedoc-Roussillon, Montpellier center of which is to produce more wine than the wine regions of Chile, South Africa and Australia. Wine growing here had excellent climatic conditions: the sun shines 300 days a year, and the townspeople state that over Montpellier, the sun never sets. The same was said an official nickname: The City of the Sun.
An original history of the formation of Montpellier is reflected in the numerous cultural, architectural and historical monuments. The special charm of the city makes it the oldest part with narrow winding streets, climbing the slopes of the hills, with old mansions and magnificent cathedrals.
Montpellier originated in the Middle Ages near the episcopal city Magelon on the coast. Pirate attacks have forced part magelontsev to move away from the coast. Founding date of Montpellier called 985, when, according to the documents, the land between the road and the Roman Domitsianovoy Les rivers and Masson were granted by Count Bernard de Melgeylem his knight Gilemu. Guillem descendants built a fortress on the hill, which became the historical core of the city. In the XII century. these areas were surrounded by a fortified wall, of which today are preserved Pine Tower and Tower Babot.
The city quickly grew and grew rich, helped by two factors: firstly, the passage through it of one of the routes Way of St. James, and secondly, through the commercial port of Montpellier Lattes is bound throughout the Mediterranean. The coat of arms of the city of Montpellier displayed Basilica of Our Lady of money-changing Tables of one of the stopping points of pilgrims.
It was originally dedicated to the Virgin Mary, but in the XIII century. received the name of Our Lady of money-changing Tables because of the large amount of money changers that set up their tables under its walls. After the demolition of the church in 1794 in its place was built the city market on Place Jean Jaures, and after his removal excavations have uncovered a unique historical Montpellier crypt that existed back in the Romanesque era. This underground vaulted room (lower church), which currently houses the Museum of the history of Montpellier X-XVI centuries.
In the XIII century. Montpellier through dynastic marriage became possession of the Aragon King Pedro II (1174-1213 gg.). In this case, the city receives significant tax privileges and consulate municipality. But in 1349 the Aragonese rulers of the city sold the King of France Philip VI of Valois (1293-1350 gg.) For 120 thousand gold crowns.
The plague in the second half of the XIV century. nearly wiped out the population of Montpellier (killed 25 thousand people), and the city was in decline. More city suffered during the religious wars of the XVI century., When he became a stronghold of the Huguenots. For some time the position of Protestants in the city were so strong that Montpellier has achieved confirm their status stronghold of Protestantism: according to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, signed by King Henry IV (1553-1610), in the city was prohibited conduct church services in the Catholic rite. Catholicism back their positions in Montpellier after a 1622 rebel army captured the city of King Louis XIII (1601-1643 gg.).
In the XVII century. Montpellier became the administrative center of the province of Languedoc, and at the end of the XVIII century. Department of Herault.
At the municipal website states romantic official nickname of the hill Montpellier Mont de wives of Nephi, that there is a mountain of young maidens. But the young man, thanks to the university, who grew up in was founded in 1220 the School of Medicine, there are many.
Montpellier is one of the youngest cities in the south of France, not only on the date the base (985, it is not so long ago, when compared to neighboring towns, whose history goes back to pre-Roman era yet), but also by age citizens. About 25% of the population for a long time are young people under the age of 25 years. This is a student city, its ancient university is known far beyond the borders of France. It taught medicine author of the novel Gargantua and Pantagruel by François Rabelais (1494-1553 gg.). There he studied and received his doctorate Michel de Nostrdam, also known as Nostradamus (1503-1566 gg.) Is a French astrologer, alchemist and a predictor of the future.Map of Montpellier
The administrative center is the Languedoc-Roussillon region and the department of Herault. From the point of view of architecture is not only interesting old town. Particularly noteworthy is relatively new neighborhood, named after the heroine of the Greek myth of Antigone. According to the draft 1977 city should be completed in an easterly direction to connect the historic center with the River Lez, which connects the Sea of Montpellier. Antigone Project was implemented from 1978 to 2000. under the direction of the Spanish architect Ricardo Bofill (born in 1939). Antigone building built on a former military training ground area of 35 hectares. The whole neighborhood is designed in the spirit of ancient Greek architecture, with copies of Greek statues and Greek names: Dionysius area, an area of Thessaly.
The special beauty of Montpellier gives gardens, squares and parks, of which there are about fifty.
The city is the botanical garden, founded back in 1593 on the personal instructions of King Henry IV.
In recent decades, Montpellier is experiencing strong growth in the economy. Here are the companies working in the field of health care, information, agro-technology, as well as in the field of renewable energy, water management and regeneration has research centers giants such as IBM, Dell, Sanofi, Veolia, Ubisoft, Intel.
The economic recovery in the second half of the XX. and rapid population growth in Montpellier associated with resettlement in the city in 1962 by the French out of Algeria after independence the French colonies in Africa.
Most of the city's population is ethnic French, in recent years a growing number of immigrants from North Africa, and historically in Montpellier live fairly large diaspora Spaniards had a profound impact on the cultural life of the city, particularly in the music industry. And the music in this city sounds often as every summer in Montpellier music festivals of European importance, mainly dedicated to classical music and jazz, dance festivals and folk theaters.
Travel to France.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Location: south of France.
The administrative center of the region of Languedoc-Roussillon and Hérault department.

Date of foundation: 985,
Administrative divisions: 7 districts.
Language: French.
Ethnic composition: the French, the Spaniards, the natives of North Africa.
Religions: Catholicism, Protestantism, Judaism, Islam.
Currency: euro.
The largest river is: Les.
The major airport: international airport

FIGURES

Area: 56.88 km2.

Population: 257,351 people. (2010).
Population density: 4,524.4 inhabitants / km2.
Lowest point: 8 m
Highest point: Park Peyroux (187 m).
Distance: 748 km from Paris, 326 km from Nice, 170 km from Marseille.

CLIMATE

Mediterranean.

The average temperature in January: +7C.
The average temperature in July: +24C
Average annual precipitation: 650 mm.
Relative humidity: 80-90%.

ECONOMY

GRP: ,364 billion (2010).
GDP per capita: 500 (2010 g.)
Industry: electronic, chemical, pharmaceutical, food processing (wine).
Scope of services: tourism, trade (wine fair), hotel and transport services.

ATTRACTIONS

Places of worship: Abbey de Saint-Guillaume-le-Désert (804 g), Vinogul (XI-XII centuries.), Cassano (1080), Valman (1138), the Cathedral of St. Peter (1367) , chapel of St. Charles (the second half of the XVII century.), the Basilica of Our Lady of money-changing table (1748), the Church of St. Dionysius (XVIII c.).
ArchitecturalArc de Triomphe (1692), a quarter of Antigone (2000), Place de la Comedie, Flower, Jean Jaures, Canourgue, Park (Promenade) du Peyroux.
History: Crypt of Our Lady of money-changing table (Museum of Montpellier X-XVI centuries), the Tower of Ba-bot (XII c.), Pine Tower (XIV c.), L'Ecusson quarter, the Botanical Garden, Medical University (1220), Monument to the savior of the vineyards Jules Planchon (winner of phylloxera).
CulturalMuseum Fabre (Montpellier main gallery), the Museum of Montpellier X-XVI centuries. (In the crypt), the Museum Agropo fox (food), the Museum of Atget (Art Gallery), the Museum of Old Town, Museum of Languedoc, the Museum of impressions (copies of the most famous sculptures of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome).
Other: Lunar zoo, theater Corum, the village of Assas (wine center), Esplanade Charles de Gaulle.

Curiosities

■ The only French monument to the leader of the world proletariat, Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924 gg.) Is set in Montpellier at the initiative of a convinced socialist mayor Georges Frechet (1938-2010 gg.), At the opening of the monument voskliknuvshego: Long live the October Revolution! Long live Lenin!
■ Its name comes from the word Babot babota which meant an evil witch and harmful.
■ In 1562 the bells and lattice Cathedral of St. Peter were melted at the core of guns that Protestants used to defend the city from his besieged Catholics.
■ The Siege of Montpellier in 1622 the troops of King Louis XIII went on for eight months.
■ The plant magnolia called GV in 1703 after the French botanist Pierre Magnol (1638-1715.), Who was born in Montpellier, a professor of botany and director of the Royal Botanic Gardens in Montpellier.
■ In 1783, French physicist and inventor Louis-Sebastien Lenormand (1757-1837 gg.), A native of Montpellier made from the tower Babot first ever documented parachute jump. He also coined the term parachute.
■ In 1825 the tower was located at Pine shelter repentant sinner.
■ The length of the bike paths in Montpellier, 120 km.
■ In the quarter Antigone is a unique residential house on the Les: the entire facade of the building is landscaped with live plants. The idea of green walls interesting finding of modern architecture.
■ During the construction of the tower was surrounded Pine these conifers, pines and two even grew up on its roof. Nostradamus predicted the destruction of the city of Montpellier, just as with the tower disappear pine. In the XIX century. trees from the tower had to be removed: their roots are destroyed building. To prediction does not come true, in their place, planted two cypress trees that grow here today.
■ After the French defeat and occupation of the northern part of Paris in 1940, Southern France remained free zone and was not occupied (up to 1942), since the Vichy (Vichy) demonstrated loyalty to Nazi Germany.
■ On the station square of Montpellier is a monument depicting the grateful peasants, stretching grapes Planchon Jules (1823-1888 gg.) French botanist who saved the vineyards from phylloxera (insects) by grafting European varieties of grapes on American rootstock varieties resistant to phylloxera .
■ City of Montpelier is the smallest capital city of the U.S. state (Vermont) was named after the French city of Montpellier. State was originally part of New France, the name of Vermont also has French roots and translates as green mountain.